Vitamin & Mineral Dictionary 

5-HTP can help balance serotonin (the “calming” neurotransmitter) in your brain, helping to improve your mood, cravings for foods, nervousness and impulse behavior. 5-HTP is beneficial if you’re under high stress for extended periods of time.  It's an amino acid that is the precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin and is made from L-tryptophan. Influences the synthesis of melatonin and it has been reported to increase levels of brain dopamine and norepinephrine.  

5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan)

Alpha-lipoic acid, or lipoic acid, is a naturally occurring dithiol compound, and has long been known as an essential cofactor for mitochondrial bioenergetic enzymes.  It's an effective antioxidant, helping decrease the effects of oxidative stress on the body.  It can help improve insulin signaling and regulation of appetite, supporting its use in blood sugar regulation. ALA is capable of removing toxic heavy metals from the body, including mercury and cadmium.  

ALA (Alpha Lipoic Acid)

Acetyl-L-carnitine is an amino acid that is synthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine or obtained from dietary sources. It has been reported to improve the production of energy (ATP) in muscle tissue. Enhance cellular oxygenation and helps prevent damage from a lack of oxygen.  It has been seen to help regulate fat metabolism by facilitating the transport of fats and cholesterol across cell membranes into the mitochondria.  It also helps the body oxidize amino acids to produce energy when necessary while serving as an antioxidant.  ALC may improve brain function in those with age related memory disorders and improve mood. May help decrease age-related eye conditions, like cataracts, diabetic retinopathy and age related macular degeneration.

ALC (Acetyl-L-Carnitine)

An essential amino acid involved in numerous areas of human physiology, including production of nitric oxide (NO). NO is a key messenger molecule involved in vascular regulation, immune activity, and endocrine function. Arginine is also involved in protein production, wound healing, erectile function, and fertility. Arginine sustained release may help those with erectile dysfunction.


Beta-carotene belongs to a group of plant compounds called carotenoids. To date, over 500 carotenoids have been found to occur in nature.  Beta-carotene is the most abundant carotenoid in human foods and is generally thought to be the most important carotenoid for humans.   Beta-carotene, which is also known as pro-vitamin A, consists of two molecules of vitamin A linked together (A-A). Enzymes in the epithelial lining of the intestinal tract split beta-carotene into two molecules of vitamin A whenever the body needs it. Betacarotene is the most abundant precursor of vitamin A in fruits and vegetables.   Healthy levels of vitamin A is necessary for healthy eyes, bones, immunity and skin.


In the body, betaine acts as a methyl donor for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine and it also functions as an osmolyte. It also helps with hepatic function and carnitine production. Betaine HCL is a synthetic digestive aid used to help digest proteins from food.  Betaine is used to support a healthy heart, helping to decrease homocysteine. Elevated levels of homocysteine are reported to increase the chances of heart disease.  Betaine may also help improve liver function.


Calcium comes in several forms as citrate, aspartate, ascorbate, lactate, phosphate, carbonate, glycinate, malate, amino acid chelates, and microcrystalline hydroxyapatite compound.  Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. Average healthy males contain about 2.5 to 3 pounds of calcium while females contain about 2 pounds. Approximately 99% of calcium is present in the bones and teeth, which leaves only about 1% in cells and body fluids.
 Although only a small amount of calcium is in the blood, the body goes to great lengths to maintain blood-calcium levels within a relatively narrow range. Three regulatory mechanisms control blood-calcium. If levels drop too low, intestinal calcium absorption can increase, calcium can be released from bones, and/or the kidneys reduce calcium excretion. In bones and teeth, calcium exists primarily as hydroxyapatite, which is a calcium carbonate/calcium phosphate crystalline compound that provides rigidity and strength to these tissues. 


Choline is a member of the water soluble B complex vitamin group. Classifying choline as a vitamin is questionable since humans synthesize it. However, because the rate of synthesis is normally insufficient to meet human metabolic needs, choline has been included as an essential vitamin nutrient. The primary dietary source of choline is in the form of the phospholipid known as phosphatidylcholine (lecithin). It's active in neurological activities, precursor to and a component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in regulating a wide range of neurological activities, including the functions of movement, coordination, and the stimulation of muscle contraction. Plays a critical role in the higher level cerebrocortical functions of thoughts, memory and intellect.  In biochemical pathways, structurally it contains three methyl groups that enable it to serve as a methyl donor in many important biochemical pathways. 
In cells, part of phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid that is a major structural component of cell walls and cellular membranes throughout the body.  In amino acid and protein synthesis, it's converted to betaine and then functions in transmethylation reactions (methyl donor) in the synthesis of amino acids and proteins.   


Chromium was first discovered as an essential trace element in 1955. The body of an average healthy individual contains only several milligrams. However, this small amount plays important roles in the enhancement of insulin’s effectiveness, regulation of blood sugar levels, and the activation of various enzymes for energy production. Chromium provides support for healthy glucose metabolism and helps the body metabolize carbohydrates and fats.


Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a group of 8 fatty acid isomers that are structurally similar to linoleic acid, which is also known as omega-6.  The only difference linoleic acid and the CLA isomers is the location of their two double bonds.  CLA is used to help improve weight loss when part of a weight loss program including dietary changes, exercise and dietary supplements to help balance metabolism.  It may help improve your immune system, leading to a decreased risk of developing certain diseases such as cancer.  It has been seen to help improve your blood sugar regulation, aiding those with diabetes and insulin resistance to help balance blood sugar.  It may improve your cholesterol and triglyceride levels, leading to a decreased risk of heart disease.

CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid)

CoQ10 is a compound found naturally in virtually every cell in the human body. CoQ10 is a lipophilic compound whose primary role is as a vital intermediate of the electron transport system in the mitochondria. CoQ10 exists in the body as ubiquinone and is reduced to form ubiquinol, which has biological effects. 
Adequate amounts of CoQ10 are necessary for cellular respiration and ATP production. CoQ10 also functions as an intercellular antioxidant. True deficiency states are rare but often present with drug/nutrient depletion and imbalances in metabolism, such as with insulin resistance, obesity, encephalomyopathy, nephropathy, apoptosis, myopathy and heart disease.

CoQ10 (Coenzyme Q10)

DHA is an omega-3 fatty acid made from another fatty acid called alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). ALA is found predominantly in flaxseed oil and hemp seed oil. Green leafy vegetables, soybeans, walnuts, purslane (Portulaca oleracea) and canola oil have small amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. It may help improve brain function, such as in those with age related memory disorders, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 


DHA may help decrease inflammation as seen in arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. It has been seen to help decrease your risk for developing heart conditions by helping control high cholesterol levels and blood pressure. Improving insulin resistance and thereby decrease your risks of developing type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.  DHA may also be helpful in skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. 

DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid)

 Glutathione is a key component of the body’s antioxidant system and is a substrate in the conjugation and reduction reactions in the body. It also plays an important role in the removal of toxins by supporting healthy liver function. Glutathione is considered a non-essential nutrient manufactured from L-cysteine, L-glutamine and glycine. 
Glutathione is a primary protectant of skin, lens, cornea, and retina against radiation damage, and the biochemical foundation of P450 detoxification in the liver, kidneys, lungs, intestinal epithelia, and other organs. Helps transport some amino acids across cellular membranes. Involved in the synthesis of fatty acids


Iron plays a role in many biochemical pathways. The primary functions of iron involve oxygen transport within blood and muscle, electron transfer in relation to the cellular uptake of oxygen, and the conversion of blood sugar to energy. Iron is also a part of many enzymes that are involved with making new cells, amino acids, hormones, and neurotransmitters.
Iron exists in various forms in the body: in functional forms (in hemoglobin and in enzymes) and in transport and storage forms (ferritin, transferrin, and hemosiderin)


Lysine is an essential amino acid that is occurs in high concentrations in muscle tissue. It is needed for growth and helps to maintain nitrogen balance in the body. The metabolism of lysine is dependent on a variety of other nutrients including vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C, glutamic acid, and iron.  Lysine may help decrease the number of outbreaks and the severity of symptoms in individuals with herpes simplex.  Lysine may help prevent dental caries (tooth decay).


Lysine is an essential amino acid that is occurs in high concentrations in muscle tissue. It is needed for growth and helps to maintain nitrogen balance in the body. The metabolism of lysine is dependent on a variety of other nutrients including vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C, glutamic acid, and iron.  Lysine may help decrease the number of outbreaks and the severity of symptoms in individuals with herpes simplex.  Lysine may help prevent dental caries (tooth decay).

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